What is Transformer? Uses and principle of transformers!

principle of transformer

Hello friends and welcome to SIL BLOG. Do you want to know what is a transformer? what principle does the transformer work on and what is the efficiency of the transformer? Today we will discuss these topic. If you study physics in 12th science, then this post is specially prepared for you !

There is a topic in Physics in 12th Science. Today we will discuss this topic fully. If you are a student, then this post may prove useful for you. What is Transformer? this question also appears in the board exam many times and this is a very important question.

Friends, you must have seen the transformer many times and perhaps very few people will have a question about what is the function of the transformer and on what principle does the transformer work. I have prepared this post especially for science students studying in 12th and also every information and question related to the transformer is covered which is useful for the board, so without delay, let us know-

What is Transformer:

Friends transformer is a device that can reduce or increase the alternating voltage without loss of energy, hence the voltage generated by the transformer is called the alternating voltage. The transformer can reduce or decrease the voltage without changing the frequency of the current. The transformer was invented by Michael faraday.

What principle does the transformer works on:

The transformer works on the principle of reciprocal induction. A transformer is a device used to change the voltage of a alternating current. A transformer can only change the voltage of a alternating current, it cannot change the voltage of a direct current.

Types of Transformer:

Friends, let me tell you for your information, there are generally two types of transformers which we have described below.

•Step-down Transformer.

•Step-up Transformer.

• Step down Transformer:

The Step down transformer convert a weak alternating current of high potential into a strong alternating current with a low potential. This transformer often consists of two coils. One of these coils consists of thin wires with more copper wires called primary coils and there is an Iron core between the two coils. In the second coil, thick copper wires are connected in a short turn, which is called the secondary coil.

•Step Up Transformer :

The Step up transformers convert the strong alternating current with low potential into weak alternating current with high potential. The Step up transformer consists of two coils in which one coil consists of coarse copper wires with short turns called primary coil. And there is an iron core between the two coils. In the second coil there are more number of rounds of thin copper wire, which is called the secondary coil. This means that it is exactly opposite to the Step down transformer.

Efficiency of a Transformer:

Friends, we can consider the efficiency of the transformer in such a way that the ratio of the output power and the input power in the transformer is called the efficiency of the transformer. That is, in other words, the ratio of the energy received in the transformer to the second coil and the energy given to the primary coil is called the efficiency of the transformer.

The ratio of efficiency of the transformer should be 100% for an ideal transformer, but this does not happen, the efficiency of the transformer is between 65% to 95%. Its formula is as follows-

Output power: input power = efficiency of transformer

  Note- { : This sign represents the ratio }

Difference between Step down & Step up Transformer:-

•Transformers that are used to reduce the voltage are called Step down transformers.

Transformers that are used to increase the voltage are called Step up transformers.

•In Step down transformer the number of turns in primary coil is more and the number of turns in second coil is less.

In Step up transformer, the number of turns in the primary coil is less and the number of turns in the second coil is more.

•Step down transformer increases the alternating voltage.

The Step up transformer reduces the alternating voltage.

•Step-down transformer reduces current strength

Step-up transformer increases current strength

•Transformation ratio (K) of a Step down transformer is greater than one.

Transformation ratio (K) of a Step up transformer is greater than one.

Reason for energy loss of transformers:-

There is always a loss of energy in the transformer in some way. This means that the transformer does not have 100% efficiency. Let us know the reasons for the loss of power in the transformer.

•Loss due to Eddy currents.

•Copper loss.

•Loss in magnetic flux.

•Loss due to Eddy currents:

Loss of energy occurs due to the vortex currents generated in the transformer. The core is made thin to reduce losses arising from eddy currents, so that the energy loss is reduced. It is an important cause of energy loss in the transformer.

•Copper loss:

When the alternating current flows in the primary and secondary coils, some of the energy is lost as heat in the copper turns. Cold air and oil are circulated around the coil to absorb the heat generated in the coil so that energy loss can be saved.

•Loss in magnetic flux:

Friends, for your information, let me tell you that the magnetic flux generated in the primary coil in the transformer does not fully reach the secondary coil. That is, the amount of electrical flux generated in the primary coil does not completely pass through the secondary coil. To reduce the loss of energy, the primary coil and the second coil are made on top of each other.

Use of transformer:

Friends, there are many uses of transformers and electricity in our daily life. We cannot imagine how much loss can be caused by lack of electricity. Just think how you feel if electricity is lost for one hour, do tell us in the comment box.

•Transformers are used in Radio, Telephone, Refrigerators and T.V in daily life.

•Where electrical energy is produced electricity is sent to our homes by reducing the current intensity of the transformer.

•Welding and transformers are used in various types of furnaces in factories. Distribution transformers are used to distribute current.


Friend, we hope you liked the information I have told you about what is transformer , which principle the transformer works and what is the efficiency of the transformer. 

If you have any question about this information, then definitely ask in the comment box. Friends, if you are interested in similar information and want to know more about science and technology, then subscribe SIL BLOG for lastest update.